Nope, there is no way to do it from a webpage.
chrome:// is a privileged origin, and any attempt to open it will result in a redirect to
Chrome does that to reduce the attack surface: even though just opening those URLs should be harmless, it’s better not to allow websites and external programs to even try.
Besides, it’s not that harmless, e.g. debug URLs like
chrome://hang (careful, those really do what you expect).
Obviously, you can’t use
chrome.tabs as it’s an extension API not exposed to websites. It is, however, capable of opening privileged origins.