“TypeError: a bytes-like object is required, not ‘str'” when handling file content in Python 3

You opened the file in binary mode: with open(fname, ‘rb’) as f: This means that all data read from the file is returned as bytes objects, not str. You cannot then use a string in a containment test: if ‘some-pattern’ in tmp: continue You’d have to use a bytes object to test against tmp instead: … Read more

How to make HTTP requests in PHP and not wait on the response

The answer I’d previously accepted didn’t work. It still waited for responses. This does work though, taken from How do I make an asynchronous GET request in PHP? function post_without_wait($url, $params) { foreach ($params as $key => &$val) { if (is_array($val)) $val = implode(‘,’, $val); $post_params[] = $key.’=’.urlencode($val); } $post_string = implode(‘&’, $post_params); $parts=parse_url($url); $fp … Read more

“TypeError: method() takes 1 positional argument but 2 were given” but I did only pass one

In Python, this: my_object.method(“foo”) …is syntactic sugar, which the interpreter translates behind the scenes into: MyClass.method(my_object, “foo”) …which, as you can see, does indeed have two arguments – it’s just that the first one is implicit, from the point of view of the caller. This is because most methods do some work with the object … Read more

How can I safely create a directory (possibly including intermediate directories)?

On Python ≥ 3.5, use pathlib.Path.mkdir: from pathlib import Path Path(“/my/directory”).mkdir(parents=True, exist_ok=True) For older versions of Python, I see two answers with good qualities, each with a small flaw, so I will give my take on it: Try os.path.exists, and consider os.makedirs for the creation. import os if not os.path.exists(directory): os.makedirs(directory) As noted in comments … Read more

How to redirect one HTML page to another on load

Try using: <meta http-equiv=”refresh” content=”0; url=http://example.com/” /> Note: Place it in the <head> section. Additionally for older browsers if you add a quick link in case it doesn’t refresh correctly: <p><a href=”http://example.com/”>Redirect</a></p> Will appear as Redirect This will still allow you to get to where you’re going with an additional click.