Parameters values aren’t stored in StackFrame instance. In fact, they aren’t recorded/logged at all, unless you choose to do it explicitly.
One obvious way to log theses values is to use AOP. It would certainly imply a cost, but in conjunction with a logging framework and the right log level, it may be an alternative. You could also choose to instrument only some types/methods in your basecode, where exceptions are more likely to be thrown. I would probably choose Postsharp for its static weaving capabilities, to emit log calls.
Anyway, it’s far from being an ideal solution, but I’m afraid you won’t have many options if you’re stuck in the managed world.