# Sampling sequences of random numbers in Haskell

I think that doing your computations that require random numbers inside a monad that abstracts away the generator is the cleanest thing. Here is what that code would look like:

We are going to put the StdGen instance in a state monad, then provide some sugar over the state monad’s get and set method to give us random numbers.

import Control.Monad.State (State, evalState, get, put)
import System.Random (StdGen, mkStdGen, random)
import Control.Applicative ((<$>))  (Normally I would probably not specify the imports, but this makes it easy to understand where each function is coming from.) Then we will define our “computations requiring random numbers” monad; in this case, an alias for State StdGen called R. (Because “Random” and “Rand” already mean something else.) type R a = State StdGen a  The way R works is: you define a computation that requires a stream of random numbers (the monadic “action”), and then you “run it” with runRandom: runRandom :: R a -> Int -> a runRandom action seed = evalState action$ mkStdGen seed


This takes an action and a seed, and returns the results of the action. Just like the usual evalState, runReader, etc.

Now we just need sugar around the State monad. We use get to get the StdGen, and we use put to install a new state. This means, to get one random number, we would write:

rand :: R Double
rand = do
gen <- get
let (r, gen') = random gen
put gen'
return r


We get the current state of the random number generator, use it to get a new random number and a new generator, save the random number, install the new generator state, and return the random number.

This is an “action” that can be run with runRandom, so let’s try it:

ghci> runRandom rand 42
0.11040701265689151
it :: Double


This is a pure function, so if you run it again with the same arguments, you will get the same result. The impurity stays inside the “action” that you pass to runRandom.

Anyway, your function wants pairs of random numbers, so let’s write an action to produce a pair of random numbers:

randPair :: R (Double, Double)
randPair = do
x <- rand
y <- rand
return (x,y)


Run this with runRandom, and you’ll see two different numbers in the pair, as you’d expect. But notice that you didn’t have to supply “rand” with an argument; that’s because functions are pure, but “rand” is an action, which need not be pure.

Now we can implement your normals function. boxMuller is as you defined it above, I just added a type signature so I can understand what’s going on without having to read the whole function:

boxMuller :: Double -> Double -> (Double, Double) -> Double
boxMuller mu sigma (r1,r2) =  mu + sigma * sqrt (-2 * log r1) * cos (2 * pi * r2)


With all the helper functions/actions implemented, we can finally write normals, an action of 0 arguments that returns a (lazily-generated) infinite list of normally-distributed Doubles:

normals :: R [Double]
normals = mapM (\_ -> boxMuller 0 1 <$> randPair)$ repeat ()


You could also write this less concisely if you want:

oneNormal :: R Double
oneNormal = do
pair <- randPair
return $boxMuller 0 1 pair normals :: R [Double] normals = mapM (\_ -> oneNormal)$ repeat ()


repeat () gives the monadic action an infinite stream of nothing to invoke the function with (and is what makes the result of normals infinitely long). I had initially written [1..], but I rewrote it to remove the meaningless 1 from the program text. We are not operating on integers, we just want an infinite list.

Anyway, that’s it. To use this in a real program, you just do your work requiring random normals inside an R action:

someNormals :: Int -> R [Double]
someNormals x = liftM (take x) normals

myAlgorithm :: R [Bool]
myAlgorithm = do
xs <- someNormals 10
ys <- someNormals 10
let xys = zip xs ys
return $uncurry (<) <$> xys

runRandom myAlgorithm 42


The usual techniques for programming monadic actions apply; keep as little of your application in R as possible, and things won’t be too messy.

Oh, and on other thing: laziness can “leak” outside of the monad boundary cleanly. This means you can write:

take 10 \$ runRandom normals 42


and it will work.