Ruby class instance variable vs. class variable

Instance variable on a class: class Parent @things = [] def self.things @things end def things self.class.things end end class Child < Parent @things = [] end Parent.things << :car Child.things << :doll mom = dad = p Parent.things #=> [:car] p Child.things #=> [:doll] p mom.things #=> [:car] p dad.things #=> [:car] … Read more

What is the difference between up-casting and down-casting with respect to class variable

Upcasting is casting to a supertype, while downcasting is casting to a subtype. Upcasting is always allowed, but downcasting involves a type check and can throw a ClassCastException. In your case, a cast from a Dog to an Animal is an upcast, because a Dog is-a Animal. In general, you can upcast whenever there is … Read more