What is a constant reference? (not a reference to a constant)

The clearest answer.
Does “X& const x” make any sense?

No, it is nonsense

To find out what the above declaration means, read it right-to-left:
“x is a const reference to a X”. But that is redundant — references
are always const, in the sense that you can never reseat a reference
to make it refer to a different object. Never. With or without the

In other words, “X& const x” is functionally equivalent to “X& x”.
Since you’re gaining nothing by adding the const after the &, you
shouldn’t add it: it will confuse people — the const will make some
people think that the X is const, as if you had said “const X& x”.

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